The Seven Deadly Virtues — 4

We are being asked, for the sake of our communities, to suspend normal rituals and routines, and keep to ourselves until further notice. You have been receiving advice and warnings by the virtual truckload.  Dave and I have no intention to pile on.  All we want to do is help you keep your Lent fresh and your souls clean.  This week’s virtue may be the most initially unappealing; yet, we think it is absolutely crucial for these strange days. Dave writes this week’s entry.

“I denied myself nothing my eyes desired; I refused my heart no pleasure.”
~ Ecclesiastes 2:10 

“I guess a modern version of heroism is regaining control of social impulses, saying ‘no’ to a thousand shallow contacts for the sake of a few daring plunges.”
~ David Brooks

Temperance: let’s give it another try. 

It is impossible to write anything this morning without acknowledging the strange times in which we live.  With the coronavirus, we are witness to something that literally affects every American (and world citizen) in real time.  It is an unavoidable backdrop to Lent 2020.  And we see no need to avoid it. 

Mike and I understand these Seven Deadly Virtues as speaking into our present situation. Lent is not a distraction to real life but the path to walk gracefully through it.  Therefore, it is precisely during times of disruption where virtue is most needed and where vice is most tempting.  

That brings us to our Deadly Virtue of the week:  TEMPERANCE.  The word itself has lost its place in our language except to conjure up images of an angry, axe-wielding woman of old (see the fascinating Carry Nation) or, perhaps, the Puritans in general.  

The dictionary helpfully describes temperance as “habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite.”  The King James Bible keeps temperance in the text when our modern translations use self-control.   The concept is easy to grasp; to be temperate is to exercise voluntary self-control. 

Despite America’s Puritan heritage, we must admit that temperance has become a very un-American virtue.  We are not exactly known for voluntary self-restraint.  The writer of Ecclesiastes (quoted above) may be our culture’s patron saint; we, too, are tempted to deny ourselves nothing which our eyes desire. 

Temperance is the antidote to the sin of gluttony.  Where temperance moderates indulgences, gluttony impulsively over-indulges.  Fundamentally, gluttony is a failure of self-control, the inability to be temperate with something that is otherwise normal and necessary.    

There was a famous Stanford University study, The Marshmallow Experiment (1970), regarding self-control and children.  Kids could choose one marshmallow in the moment or, if they waited an indefinite amount of time, they could have two.  The conclusion: those who delayed immediate gratification tended to have better long-term life outcomes. 

The idea is sound.  To exercise self-control by choosing not to indulge in something you want — even something good—is part of our personal maturity and our spiritual formation.  And, like all Deadly Virtues, it leads us to better life outcomes.  How is your life of self-control these days?

Both Peter and Paul include temperance/self-control in their lists of virtues.  Peter tells us to add self-control to our knowledge (2 Peter1:6) as he describes the progression of spiritual growth; knowledge requires temperance (see the reflection section below).

Paul places it at the end of his famous Fruits of the Spirit list (Galatians 5:23). It caught me how important temperance must be when its place is alongside iconic virtues such as love and joy.  By calling it a fruit of God’s Spirit, we admit that temperance is more an outcome of following Jesus than something we simply will into our lives.  Like the metaphor suggests, our focus is to cling to the Vine as if our lives depends on it and in season, fruit arrives (see John 15). 

Fasting—historically the centerpiece of Lenten practices—is designed to build the virtue of temperance.  There is much Christ can do with a person who seeks to practice self-control in even one area of their life.  For starters, things get revealed:  chronic dependencies, favorite self-medications, places of constant temptation, “good” things that lead you away from community or responsibility and more.  

All of these personal revelations open space for God if we let temperance do its inner work.  And as we become more proficient at self-control, other areas of our life may open up for God’s grace to move.  Yes, temperance is a foundational virtue that will lead us to a better long-term life outcome. 

Regarding our current reality with the COVID-19 sickness, this is a time for our whole culture, not just the Church, to rediscover the grace and power of temperance.  Where is Christ calling us to restrain ourselves for the sake of our neighbors? 

We need to stop fighting against this archaic-sounding virtue that has the audacity to deny us something within our reach and within our rights.  We need to embrace the Spirit of Temperance and reclaim a piece of our spiritual heritage—and this embracing will help navigate this time of crisis.

Lord, hear our Prayer:  

May this time of “social distancing” create a deeper hunger for community in our neighbors and ourselves.

May our hearts be more focused and our actions more compassionate during this crisis.

May we learn to deny what will harm us while we learn to embrace what will heal us. 

May our attempts at temperance — no matter how small or how frustrating — grant us a greater taste of your grace and may they be marked by Joy.  

May our growth in temperance lead us to you. 

May our failures in temperance lead us to you.

May our true fast be to loosen the chains of selfishness that bind us. 

Lord, grant us the power to do so—in the Name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, 



  • During our current coronavirus outbreak, where have you noticed a struggle with self-control?  Is there a good, natural appetite you’re having to moderate or deny? Can you re-focus that to become a spiritual practice by inviting Christ into it? 
  • If you have taken a Lenten fast, how is it going?  (Did you give up March Madness?) Consider taking one week for a concentrated fast.  Find one good thing in which you indulge everyday (food, drink, screens, games…) and simply deny it.  See what it sparks within you.  Talk to God about it.
  • If you have never read through “The Twelve Steps” of AA*, you would be wise to become familiar with them.  Which steps catch your attention? Is there one takeaway for this time of crisis? (*AA was founded just two years after Prohibition—two different approaches to the same problem of alcohol addiction).
  • Peter writes that self control helps us with knowledge (2 Peter 1:5-8).  How might that work? Think about what is involved in knowing something or someone else; what role might self-control/self-restraint play in deepening that knowledge? 
  • Temperance (translated self-control) is one of three subjects Paul brings up to a Roman Governor when he was under house arrest (Acts 24:25).  Why do you think he brought up self control? Is this why Felix left the conversation terrified?

For Fun:

A preacher was completing a sermon on temperance. With great expression he said, “If I had all the beer in the world, I’d take it and throw it into the river!” 

The congregation nodded their approval. With even greater emphasis the preacher added, “And if I had all the wine in the world, I’d take it and throw it into the river, too!” 

The people clapped and said, “AMEN.” 

“And if I had all the whiskey in the world,” said the preacher, “I’d take it and throw it into the river!” 

As the reverend sat down, the song leader then stood very cautiously and announced with a smile, “For our closing song, let us sing Hymn 365: Shall We Gather at the River.”

The Seven Deadly Virtues — 3

Welcome back to another week of Lent. We hope it has been meaningful time for you so far. 

While we settle into a month named after the Roman God of War, Dave and I invite you to consider that which is deadly to war: The VIRTUE OF PEACE. I write this week’s devotion, and I’ve provided other Biblical passages to consider, several ways to respond, and a hippie cartoon. Something for everyone!

God cannot give us a happiness and peace apart from Himself, because it is not there. There is no such thing.” —C.S. Lewis, Mere Christianity

“First keep peace with yourself, then you can also bring peace to others.” —Thomas a Kempis

“While you are proclaiming peace with your lips, be careful to have it even more fully in your heart.”—Francis of Assisi


The Biblical idea of peace is much more than just an absence of conflict. It is the presence of something better—wholeness. Shalom (the Hebrew word for Peace) denotes something complex that is in a state of completeness. It’s when all the parts of your life are meshing well. it’s the restoration of relationships. Shalom in your marriage is not when you stop fighting—it is when you are working together. The Bible looks forward to the Prince of Shalom bringing peace forever (Isaiah 9:5–6). He will put the whole world to rights and will heal everything that has been damaged. Even now, Jesus restores the relationship between God and humans, between us people, and within ourselves. (Ephesians 2:14–15)

For me, the opposite of the virtue of peace is the vice of wrath. Some people call it anger. “But Jesus did get angry,“ I can hear people saying. Let’s talk about that. Jesus was almost always peaceful and did not get angry very often. Of the few times recorded in Scripture, one was because the religious establishment was preventing the Gentiles from worshiping the true God in the Jewish Temple. The Jewish leaders had erected a marketplace in the court of the Gentiles—which was the only place in the Temple area for non-Jews to pray. (Mark 11:15-18) Moral of the Story: Get in the way of somebody’s search for God and you might be the object of Jesus‘ righteous wrath. 

Jesus also got angry at the religious leaders when they were acting in a hypocritical fashion—placing religious burdens upon the people that they themselves would not lift. (Matthew 23:3-4) So: Put religious obstacles in the way of people getting close to God and you may encounter the anger of Christ. Jesus’ anger is very specific—it’s triggered by His compassion for those being spiritually oppressed.

In my own life, there is nothing that raises my wrath more than being unjustly accused. In other words, blame me of something I’ve actually done and I’ll usually (eventually) agree with you. I might not be happy about it but I won’t get angry. Tell me I’m guilty of something I haven’t done and watch me boil. I will call my wrath justified. But is it?

Did Jesus release his wrath when he was accused of casting out demons by the power of Satan? No, instead, He resorted to reason. He said, “a house divided against itself will fall.” (Luke 11:17-19 ) When accused of breaking the Sabbath laws by healing a man or a woman on that day, he again resorted to reason. He said that if you would rescue—or even just care for—your animal on a Sabbath, then why shouldn’t He heal a person? (Luke 13:10-17, Matthew 12:9-14) Most famously, perhaps, is when Jesus was being falsely accused at his trial before the Sanhedrin in the middle of the night. He didn’t get angry—He remained silent. (Matthew 26:62-63) So much for my own “righteous anger.” It is anything but righteous. 

How does one obtain the deadly virtue of peace in situations that usually kindle anything from a brush fire to a raging inferno of wrath? It seems that one must go to the Prince of Peace for that tranquil presence of soul. The virtue of peace, like all the virtues, appears to be a gift. It is a gift one must seek in order to find—and we have to cooperate when it is given. We must open our hearts to be a channel of the Lord’s peace. 

Consider offering this prayer for the virtue of peace. May the Lord meet our need as we continue on this Lenten journey through the Seven Deadly Virtues:

Lord, please place Your shalom—your peace—in my heart. I know what I do in these stressful situations normally, but I don’t know what You would do nor how You would do it. Give me the grace to follow your lead. Use this trial to make me more like You, Jesus. Make me an instrument of Your peace. May I reflect Your character—being quick to hear, slow to speak and slow to anger. Remind me that You have not left my side and that You never will. I can trust You to fight the battles which I will only make worse. Be my Prince of Peace. Help me to forgive those who have wronged me. I place myself in Your nail-scarred hands. Amen.

Responding to the Deadly Virtue of PEACE:

  • From this list of Shalom descriptors, select one that resonates with you today: harmony, confidence, balance, completeness, wholeness, health, peace, welfare, safety, soundness, tranquility, prosperity, fullness, rest.
  • List the situations in your life right now that are robbing you of peace. There’s no judgement intended here, just be honest.
  • What are the most peaceful times of your day? Of your year? Are they peaceful because of external reasons or internal reasons? Think about one time you had peace in a situation that was anything but peaceful—why was that?
  • If you were asked to wage war against someone—short of killing that person—how would you do it? Conversely, if you were asked to “wage peace” with the same person, how would you do that?
  • Meditate upon and/or memorize one of the following verses of Scripture (NIV):

Isaiah 9:6 For to us a child is born, to us a son is given; and the government will be upon his shoulders, and he will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.

Matthew 5:9 Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called children of God.

John 14:27  Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid.

Philippians 4:6-7 Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. 7 And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus.

Colossians 3:15 Let the peace of Christ rule in your hearts, since as members of one body you were called to peace. And be thankful.

1Peter 3:10-11

Whoever would love life

and see good days

must keep their tongue from evil

and their lips from deceitful speech.

They must turn from evil and do good;

they must seek peace and pursue it.

  • In John 11:30-44, Jesus gets angry when we don’t expect Him to. It appears that he is angry with death and the distress it causes people who love the person whom has died. How has Jesus brought us great peace with the reality of death?

The Seven Deadly Virtues — 2

Welcome back to the second week of Lent! This week, Dave Meserve writes on the Deadly Virtue of COMPASSION. Dave focuses on the meaning of the word in English and Greek (and of its evil twin, the vice of ENVY) and offers thoughts on how to cultivate it in our lives. Be sure read his final paragraph as he confesses his struggle with the heart of compassion and his path forward. I playfully add something for fun at the end. Blessings to you on your Lenten journey.

“You never really understand a person until you climb inside of his skin and walk around in it.” 
– Atticus Finch to Scout, in To Kill a Mockingbird 

“Before you criticize someone, walk a mile in their shoes.  That way, you’ll be a mile from them, and you’ll have their shoes.”  
– Deep Thoughts, by Jack Handy

I’m a horrible Facebook friend. I dabble mainly to look in on my kid’s lives or my friend’s vacations.  Most recently, it was to join a sweet family of four in Spain: beautiful landscapes and ancient churches older than my country. I really do enjoy seeing friend’s at play… mostly.  There are those times when something within me exists alongside the enjoyment.  And, it’s a little green… 

We are described as “green with envy” (see Twain and Shakespeare) because the skin of those who are ill can literally take on a different hue.  Envy makes us sick.  More accurately, it is our sickness that makes us envy. 

In the Bible, envy certainly breaks one of the “Big 10” Commandments about not coveting other people’s stuff.  But it goes even further. Envy not only wants what they have but does not want them to have it, either.  That is where it gets dark.  Cain wanted the acceptance his little brother received and killed him.  King Saul died violently obsessing over David’s popularity.  The world’s spiritual storyline  began when a fallen angel wanted what the Creator possessed so badly that he sought to destroy God and all the God loves—ultimate envy.  

The Greek word used for “envy” is a comparative word.  More than basic desire or covetousness, it is rooted in comparison.  Envy is not present unless you are comparing yourself to another.  And that is a particular problem for us today; we are becoming “green with comparison”.  

It is well noted that social media can feed something dark in us.  By constantly viewing only the wonderful highlight reels of others we might begin to feel sick inside about our own lives.  We pale (turn a little green?) in comparison and it robs us of something. “Comparison is the thief of joy,” Teddy Roosevelt once said, and we have all experienced that.   

There is a virtue we can cultivate that also arises from deep within us, something deadly to envy: Compassion. Here is a primary difference:  with envy you want to remove the good fortune of another while with compassion you want to relieve the suffering of another. 

Our English word for “compassion” parallels the Greek and literally means, “to suffer alongside.” A distinction between some other English words may be helpful:      
Sympathy means you can understand what the person is feeling.    
Empathy means that you feel what a person is feeling.      
Compassion feels the suffering of another and seeks to relieve it.

This leads us to the most common Greek word in our New Testament that gets translated “compassion”.  It is a compound word joining “good” with “guts”. Famously, this word is used to describe the inner motivation for both the Good Samaritan and the father of the Prodigal Son.  “Good-guts” always results in compassionate movement toward someone in need. 

While those two characters from Jesus’ parables display a compassion that seems extraordinary, being so moved from deep within can be cultivated.  Compassion does not magically come out of nowhere: the Prodigal’s father did not suddenly become gracious and the Good Samaritan’s actions were not because of a good night’s sleep.   

How do we cultivate compassion? 

Be present to others. Compassion is a virtue of proximity.  Envy is created in distance, but compassion is fostered in closeness.  You cannot be compassionate from afar.  (And, I suppose it is more difficult to envy up close.). We might begin by being physically present with those who suffer.  This helps us refocus our eyes away from comparisons.   Dietrich Bonhoeffer wrote, “We must learn to regard people less in the light of what they do or omit to do, and more in the light of what they suffer.” 

Be honest with ourselves .  We carry and often bury our own sufferings.  Physical ailments may be the most obvious but hardly the most damaging when we consider the whole person.  We are all “heart sick” and suffer for it.  And, we may have a difficult time letting our internal suffering get the air it needs.  Honesty invites the compassion of others (which may be a risk) and, most importantly,  invites the compassion of God.  Read 2 Corinthians 1:3-5 to see just how suffering and comfort and Christ all go together.  

Know Christ in suffering.  Our best hope to cultivate the Deadly Virtue of Compassion is to know Christ in His sufferings.  Paul encourages us to participate in his sufferings (Philippians 3:19) and Peter says that joy is found in such participation (1 Peter 4:13).  Having compassion for the sufferings of Christ is a way to enter into His Passion.  To live an honest, present life in a fallen, suffering world is a powerful invitation to know Christ.  

A final word.  If you are like me, all this talk about suffering can be… insufferable. I don’t naturally gravitate toward the deep and dark in myself and others.  But, if there is one time in my calendar to be brave about it, it is the reflective season of Lent.  And Lent is a time to practice virtue, which is a route we all can take.  The good news is that practice assumes we are not very good at it.  This gives me hope. I’m not very good at compassion but, I can practice it this week.  I invite you to do the same. 

Week 2 PrayerLord, may this week of Lent help me shift from comparison to compassion. Please reveal Yourself as a gracious God who meets me and my friends in our sufferings. In the name of Jesus Christ, amen.
  • Who has suffered alongside you in your past? 
  • If compassion is a virtue of proximity, who in your life may be comforted by your coming closer?  What is one step you can make toward them this week? 
  • Where do you need compassion right now?  Can you take that to Jesus?  Will you take that to your community?  How will you do that?  
  • Paul places two commands regarding compassion next to each other: “rejoice with those who rejoice” and “mourn with those who mourn” (Romans12:15).  Which is more challenging for you? Can you think of a recent example of either? 
  • If you are one who posts online:  consider posting something that does not invite comparison to your wonderful life but invites compassion toward those who suffer in some way.
  • For further reading: The stories of Cain and Abel (Genesis 4) and Saul and David (1 Samuel 18-19) are great cautionary tales about the danger of choosing envy over compassion.

For Fun … The Talking Frog.

An 85 year-old retired military officer had one hobby—he loved to fish. 

He was sitting in his boat one day when he heard a voice say,  “Pick me up.” He looked around and couldn’t see anyone. 

He thought he was dreaming when he heard the voice say again, ”Pick me up.”

He looked in the water and there, floating on the top, was a frog.

The retired officer said, “Are you talking to me?”

The frog said, “Yes, I’m talking to you. Pick me up, then kiss me. I’ll turn into the most beautiful woman you have ever seen. I’ll make sure that all your friends are envious because I will be your bride! I’ll adore you and kiss you every day.”

The retired military officer looked at the frog for a short time, reached over,  picked it up carefully and placed it in his shirt pocket.

The frog said, “What, are you crazy? Didn’t you hear what I said? I said, ‘Kiss me, and I will be your beautiful bride. I’ll make sure that all your friends are envious. I’ll adore you and kiss you every day.’”

He opened his pocket, looked at the frog and said, “Nah. Honey, at my age, I’d rather have a talking frog.”

The Seven Deadly Virtues — 1

Dave and I are excited to offer you some things to ponder each week  Our first week is about the “Deadly Virtue” of HUMILITY, the antidote to the sin of pride.  I write this section and then we both add some ways to respond whether you are reading this by yourself or using this for a small group. May Jesus meet you on your Lenten Journey!   Mike Sares

“I’d like to be humble, but what if no one notices?”    

—John Ortberg

Humility, according to the dictionary, is “freedom from pride or arrogance : the quality or state of being humble.” As C. S. Lewis wrote (more helpfully), “True humility is not thinking less of yourself; it is thinking of yourself less.” How pleasant it is when we meet and talk with people who are not as concerned with their own agendas as they are with whatever is before us at the moment. Even more, what about those folks who are more concerned about us than themselves? We tend to love being with them.

Pride is an excessive opinion of one’s own importance—whether in thought, word, or deed. Pride is known as the first of the “deadly sins,” for it leads to every other sin. Not only does it destroy a proper view of ourselves, it damages our relationship with others and with God Himself. What kills pride? Humility. Humility is the way to not becoming the kind of person most of humanity despises. This is how the Bible puts it: “When pride comes, then comes disgrace, but with humility comes wisdom.” (Proverbs 11:2) 

If the choice between humility and pride is so clear, then why do humans consistently choose the vice over the virtue? Perhaps we are so insecure that we work hard to establish our worth in the eyes of those around us (and even in our own eyes). Maybe pride is just a selfish preoccupation with ourselves. Whatever the reason, pride ravages the rapport we have with anyone. It looks like this: the more pride we have, the more we despise it in other people and the more we resent any perceived neglect. Pride is a pretty sure-fire way of not getting along with folks at home, at school, at work, or in the neighborhood.

Recognizing this about us, Jesus offered instructions to those at a dinner who had chosen the prestigious seats at the table. “When someone invites you to a wedding feast, do not take the place of honor,” He said. “… But when you are invited, take the lowest place, so that when your host comes, he will say to you, ‘Friend, move up to a better place.’ Then you will be honored in the presence of all the other guests. For all those who exalt themselves will be humbled, and those who humble themselves will be exalted.” (Luke 14:8-11)  Jesus contends that we humans are given two choices: either humble ourselves or be humbled by others and by God. It is a strong warning from the God-man, but there is hope. 

In the same way that pride is a door to every other vice, so humility is the portal to every other virtue. Humility appears to be the foundational virtue of Christ Himself, “Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be used to his own advantage; rather, he made himself nothing by taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness. And being found in appearance as a man, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to death—even death on a cross!” (Philippians 2:6-8) 

Thinking of ourselves less and thinking of others more is the obvious basis for compassion, generosity, and love—all virtues that have humility as their foundation. Not assuming we are entitled to excessive rest and pleasure makes way for diligence and temperance. Being humble enough to accept whatever circumstances we find ourselves under (looking to the Lord for strength) brings us great peace (Philippians 4:12-13). Thus, we find that all other virtues are built upon humility.

To get us started, consider praying this prayer for humility as we embark on this Lenten journey through the Seven Deadly Virtues:

“O God, your Word says that You resist the proud and give grace to the humble: grant me the virtue of true humility. Keep me from false humility, which is only pride in dress-down clothes. Jesus, you are the perfect pattern for me; let me follow in Your footsteps. Let me learn of You, Jesus, for You are gentle and humble of heart.”

Responding to the Deadly Virtue of HUMILITY:

  • If humility is thinking of yourself less and others more, who in your life has modeled this kind of humility toward you? What is one way you hope to be more like that person? Is there one practical way you might move in that direction? 
  • If it’s true that the pride we hate in others may reflect something about ourselves, think of a very prideful person you know. Describe what bothers you the most; is any of that pride true of you as well?  Anything about that you want to ask God to help you overcome?    
  • For a creative spiritual practice, every day for the next week—when in conversation with another—do NOT say something you want to say. Resist adding something that is not necessary but makes you look good (or thoughtful, or well-read, or generous, or “humble”…)   
  • For further reflection on humility, read about Mother Teresa. What is most attractive about her to you?
  • Meditate upon and/or memorize one of the following verses of Scripture:

Ephesians 4:2, Be completely humble and gentle; be patient, bearing with one another in love

Philippians 2:3-4, Do nothing from selfishness or empty conceit, but with humility of mind regard one another as more important than yourselves; do not merely look out for your own personal interests, but also for the interests of others.

James 4:6, But He gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says: “God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.”

Just for fun:

One Tuesday afternoon in the church sanctuary, a senior pastor and his associate pastor were collecting the leftover bulletins from the previous Sunday. Light was streaming into the church through beautiful stained-glass windows and playing upon the large, rough, wooden cross hanging on the wall.

Looking up and suddenly overcome by the majesty of God, the senior pastor abruptly sat down in a pew proclaiming, “Lord, I am nothing!” 

Not to be bested, the associate pastor also knelt down and exclaimed, “Lord, I am nothing!” 

The church’s handyman, working in the back of the sanctuary, joined the holy fervor. He fell onto the floor crying, “Lord, I am nothing!” Whereupon the senior pastor nudged his associate and whispered, “Look who thinks he’s nothing!”

On Fasting

Mike writes this week’s entry about the historic practice of Lent: fasting. Dave adds some notes he’s gathered over the years about the Bible on Fasting and some contemporary responses to its practice. Like all “spiritual disciplines,” its main purpose is to make space for God in our lives.

“Even now,” declares the LORD, “Return to me with all your heart, with fasting and weeping and mourning.” Rend your heart and not your garments. Return to the LORD your God, for he is gracious and compassionate, slow to anger and abounding in love, and he relents from sending calamity. (Joel 2:12-13) 

“When you fast, do not look somber as the hypocrites do, for they disfigure their faces to show others they are fasting. Truly I tell you, they have received their reward in full. But when you fast, put oil on your head and wash your face, so that it will not be obvious to others that you are fasting, but only to your Father, who is unseen; and your Father, who sees what is done in secret, will reward you.   (Jesus, in Matthew 6:16-18)

Fasting—not exactly the most popular of the spiritual disciplines. Yet, Jesus did not say, “If you fast.” He actually said, “When you fast.” Most of the earth’s Christians for most of the church’s history have fasted regularly—for spiritual reasons—not to cleanse their bodies of unwanted toxins or in order to lose weight. 

Thinking about fasting takes me back to when I was a young boy growing up in the Greek Orthodox Church. Orthodox Christians are supposed to fast every Wednesday and Friday from meat, fish, dairy, and eggs unless it is a special no-fasting time. My family didn’t do that, but we did fast on Fridays along with the Catholics, Anglicans, and some of the Methodists. My father’s tavern (Sares Bar) had a Fish Fry every Friday evening—so we tailored the Friday fast to suit our economic reality. I still enjoy fish and chips.

We did get serious about fasting a couple times a year, and the forty days before Easter was one of those times. Sunday school was the venue for making sure we big-eyed, dark-haired, olive-skinned Greek kids made the commitment. I remember the papers being handed out during class. There was a picture of the Orthodox Cross on one side (that made it official) and all these lines for writing on the other. When I listed the food items I would be giving up during Lent, I did it out of obligation thinking somehow I would become a better person and that God would be pleased with my sacrifice. I could be very specific about what to abstain from: chewing gum but not licorice; chocolate but not hard candy; my brothers but not my sister. (That’s a joke, but you get the idea.)

Sometimes I don’t think I have progressed much beyond that. During my times of fasting as an adult, there are times I will long for a piece of pizza—not so much because I’m hungry, but for the sheer pleasure of taste. At those times, I wish I had been more specific at the outset (for example: fast from all Italian food except pizza). So, God uses fasting as an adult to re-inform me of how hedonistic I really am. 

Until I fasted, I never noticed how good the stuff on other peoples’ plates looked when at the dinner table or at a restaurant. I’d never noticed how often food is advertised in the newspaper, on television, at the movies, or on billboards. One gets the paranoid feeling that the world is out to sabotage one’s fast. Perhaps the devil is not pleased when we seek Heavenly Bread and wants to divert our attention as often as possible. It reminds me of Satan’s encounter with Jesus where he suggested that Jesus turn stones into bread. Our Lord’s answer is amazing: “It is written: ‘Man does not live on bread alone, but on every word that comes from the mouth of God.’” (Matthew 4:4)  To be sure, fasting is a form of spiritual warfare with our culture and with spiritually dark forces. It is a doorway to understanding our dependence upon Jesus Christ.

I usually begin fasting now with noble goals of toppling my own “idols” and of drawing closer to God; but in the middle of the fast the temptation is toward performance and results. Sometimes it becomes more about the weight I can lose than about the relationship with God I can gain. God can be lost in the details of the very thing meant to find him. It becomes more about what I can do by means of this religious exercise as opposed to what God can do in me. What began because I was not strong enough in some area of my life—and looking for God’s help—ends up becoming a type of self-help process by which I prove I don’t need the grace of God. Ironic! Once again I am that young Greek Orthodox boy proving to God that I can be a good Christian. 

If there is one thing that Jesus proved during his temptation, it was that He depended upon the Father totally. He did nothing in his own power. If you are fasting during this time of Lent (and even if you are not) you, too, will be tempted but not just with food. You will be tempted to live life on your own power—even life with God. So, stay close to Jesus. Monitor your motives. Confess your mental slip-ups to a trusted friend. Forgive yourself when you accidentally (or willfully) break your fast. Keep your eyes on Jesus more than on yourself. By His grace, you will lean less upon food, less upon yourself, and learn to lean more upon the Everlasting Arms of Christ.

Why Fast?
– Mourning (sometimes this occurs naturally as a grieving response)
– Repentance
– Need (for Strength, Mercy, Help, Direction, a Word from God) 
– Preparation for ministry
– Worship 

Why NOT to fast
– In order to appear spiritual
– So that we can manipulate God
– In order to lose weight

When NOT to fast:
– When our deeds are evil (repent first)

How to Fast
– Abstain from certain foods
– Abstain from certain meals 
– Abstain from food for a specified period of time (like Lent) or certain days of the week
– Abstain from media and/or comforts 
– Abstain from certain habits
– Observe the Church Calendar (also known as the Liturgical Year)  
Celebration of Discipline by Richard Foster (HarperCollins)
The Spirit of the Disciplines by Dallas Willard (HarperCollins) 
Spiritual Disciplines Handbook by Adelle Ahlberg Calhoun (IVP)


The Bible on FASTING                                                                                                 
It was not Christ’s intention to reject or despise fasting. It was His intention to restore proper fasting.”  
~ Martin Luther.  

A. Throughout Scripture, fasting refers to abstaining from food for spiritual purposes
Daniel (Dan 10) gave up all “delicacies”, no meat or wine (nor bathing) for three weeks
Esther (Esther 4) instructed Mordecai to ask all Jews to neither eat nor drink for three days.
Paul (Acts 9) engaged a three-day absolute fast following his Damascus road experience. 
Moses (Deut 9), Elijah (1 Kings 19:8) and Jesus did a “supernatural” absolute fast for 40 days. 

B. The People of God and Fasting
The only public fast required in the Mosaic Law was on the Day of Atonement (Lev. 23:27)
Group fasts were called in times of emergency (Joel 2:15; 2 Chron 20:1-4; Ezra 8:21-23)
Regular fasts developed.  Zechariah mentions four regular fasts (Zechariah 8:19)
A Pharisee boasted that he fasted twice a week (Luke 8:12)
The Didache (1st century) prescribes two fast days a week on Wednesday and Friday.  
There are no biblical laws for New Testament believers that command regular fasting.  

C. Jesus’ teaching of fasting
In the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 6) Jesus assumes fasting was part of the practices of His earliest followers and suggests that fasting is tied in with giving and praying. His first words about fasting dealt with the question of motive.  Fasting must center on God. 
Like the prophetess Anna, we need to be “worshipping God fasting and praying” (Luke 2:37). 
The church at Antioch received a word from God “while they were worshiping the Lord and fasting” (Acts 13:2-3) and set apart Paul and Barnabas as missionaries. 
Yet, Jesus’ followers were also accused of not fasting, unlike the disciples of John the Baptist.  (Matthew 9:14-15) 

“Jesus made it clear that he expected his disciples to fast after he was gone… that the children of the kingdom of God would fast.  For the person longing for a more intimate walk with God, these Statement of Jesus are drawing words.” 
~ Richard Foster 

D. “Secondary” purposes of fasting, by Richard Foster, Celebration of Discipline
Fasting reveals the things that controls us. We cover up what is inside us with food and other good things, but in fasting these things surface. 
Fasting reminds us that we are sustained “by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God.” (Matthew 4:4). Therefore, in experiences of fasting we are not so much abstaining from good as we are feasting on the word of God.  Fasting is feasting!” (John 4:32-34)
Fasting helps us keep our balance in life.  How easily we begin to allow non essentials to take precedence in our lives.  How quickly we crave things we do not need.” (1 Cor. 9:27). 
David fasted for his enemies to keep himself from vengeance (Psalm 35:11-14) 

E. Recommendations for a traditional food fast (Foster)
A progression should be observed, as with all the Disciplines. If the setting allows, debate the time you would normally use eating to prayer. 
Follow Jesus’ counsel to refrain from calling attention to what you are doing. Learn from others before you attempt a longer fast. 
Learn the process your body goes through in the course of a longer fast.

The Seven Deadly Virtues: A Lenten Guide

Dave Meserve and I have written a half dozen Advent Guides together and wanted to try our hand at a Lenten Guide.  A printed form (like our Advent Guides) did not make sense this year, so we have decided to offer it digitally. This week’s introduction is written by Dave.

Welcome to Lent. 

Lent is a gift the ancient church has given us that often remains unopened.  For some it is too antiquated or intimidating.  For many it is simply a mystery that holds intrigue but lacks direction.   This Lent guide is an attempt to provide some gracious direction for those who may want a fresh take—or even a first take—on an ancient season.  And so…

     •  If you know Lent in your bones and hope for a fresh experience of the season…

     •  If you grew up seeing it from afar (likely, across the street at the Orthodox or Catholic Church) and are ready to explore it for yourselves…   

     •  If your default position remains a safe distant from organized religion and yet, you still long for a true, spiritual experience…  

May this guide play a small part in helping you find what your heart truly seeks.

The Season of Lent

We begin our journey with a few helpful ways to approach Lent:

Lent is a season.  Originally a time of preparation for Easter baptisms, Lent expanded to 40 days and included the whole congregation.  Its length is intentional. In the church world, we look at 10% as a “tithe” number — one tenth of your income set aside for holy use.   As Lent is roughly 10% of a year, it can be viewed as a time to intentionally set apart a portion to be especially mindful regarding our spiritual life.   

Lent is a messy season.  The name itself comes from a German word meaning “lengthen.” As the days get longer, it coincides with the coming of spring and the ending of winter.  We call it “mud time” where the melted snow reveals all the debris underneath, a helpful metaphor for our spiritual lives.  It is while we address the messiness of the season we notice the buds of new growth beginning to sprout.  

Lent is an intentional season.  To pursue spiritual growth through Lent requires a level of focus and this focus must happen within a  frantic culture where reflection and resolve have never been more elusive.  We know that, without intention, growth rarely occurs. This makes the very act of committing to practice Lent counter-cultural.  

Lent is to be practiced.   We don’t “practice church,” we practice Lent.  Even the most irreligious recognize the active part of the season: “What are you giving up for Lent?”  While we often dumb-down Lent to some form of self-improvement program, we understand that Lent is not a passive endeavor.  As well, embedded in the idea of practice is that we practice to get better.  We don’t have to be very good at it—and that is strangely comforting.  

In all, Lent is an intentional, messy season where we practice that which helps us grow into the kind of people were were designed to be, the kind of people who look more and more like Jesus.  This is the gift of the ancient Church and now is the time to open it anew. 

Our Theme: The Deadly Virtues

To help focus our Lent, we have chosen a theme to center our thoughts and hopes and practices: “The 7 Deadly Virtues,” a twist on the ancient list of vices. 

Before Gregory the Great (circa 600 A.D) was honing the list of vices to avoid, others were writing about the virtues to engage.  One such writer coined the term, “Contrary Virtues,” an attempt to combat the sinful seven.  In modern vernacular, he understood that “a good offense is the best defense”.  We think he was right. 

We borrowed “deadly” as our adjective for the same reason it was attached to “sins”.   Certain sins were considered “deadly”, not in the sense that they are beyond pardon but rather in the sense that they are “root” sins — they lead to other sins.  Similarly, “deadly” virtues are “root” virtues: their presence and practice leads to the formation of other virtues. 

Our use of “deadly” is also a nod to the seriousness of the subject.  These virtues are not tame niceties that we put on to be impressive but divinely directed strategies in the battle for our souls.  These particular virtues and vices cannot coexist; we are moving toward one or the other.  Lent is an intentional time to move toward the “deadly,” virtuous life of Christ.

Using This Guide

Each week we will introduce one deadly virtue through a short writing and a response section.  

The writing will tease out the nature of each virtue—often in light of the corresponding vice.  The Christian Scriptures will be our primary backdrop but, we will resource other sources of wisdom as well. 

The response section will offer ideas and direction regarding how to nurture a particular virtue.  It will include some stories to research, resources to explore and practices to try on, if only for the week.   All this is in hopes of forming the right kind of virtuous habits. 

As with any adventure, participating within a community of any size heightens the effectiveness and, likely, the pleasure of the pursuit.  We hope you find some friends to make this Lenten journey with you. 

Overall, we hope GRACE covers all of your efforts along with all your inner thoughts during this season of Lent.  The last thing most of us need is another spiritual program where we fall short.  That is not the heart of this guide and certainly not the heart of Lent. 

May you have compassion toward yourself, 

love others through imperfections 

and be generous with your heart.  

May you practice temperance with joy, 

diligence with affection, 

and humility with accomplishment.  

And may you find yourselves at peace with God.  

Your companions on the journey, 

– Mike & Dave.

Trying To Be Good

Lord, who may dwell in your sanctuary? Who may live on your holy hill? The one whose walk is blameless and who does what is righteous … Psalm 15:1-2

This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. Romans 3:22

It is easy to begin trying hard to be good. The very act of trying makes us feel better about ourselves. When we try hard to be good, sometimes even other people feel better about us. And we imagine that God is pleased as we trudge up “His Holy Hill,” foot by excruciating foot. We usually don’t get far, however.

It is more difficult to acknowledge our depravity and our inability to want to be good. When we get honest, we realize that what we really want oftentimes is to be bad. It is then we call out to God, “I can’t live on your holy hill! I’m not righteous at all!”  Then, upside-down reality breaks in—because of our faith in what Jesus did on the cross, God brings us up to the top of that hill to live with Him, day by day. It is there that He gives us strength to live the life we read of in Psalm 15.  (And strength is required!)

To put it succinctly: Living the righteous life through faith in Christ is easier than living righteously on your own. Try hard to be good and you will succeed for a while. If you can keep it up, you’ll become proud about your ability to be good—which makes you bad (remember Jesus’ words to the Pharisees in the Gospels). The truth is that it is impossible to be good for a lifetime without Jesus making it happen in you, as we read in Romans 3.

How to “Cash-in” on God’s Amazing Offer for 2020

Isaiah 55:1-2  “Come, all you who are thirsty, come to the waters; and you who have no money, come, buy and eat! Come, buy wine and milk without money and without cost. Why spend money on what is not bread, and your labor on what does not satisfy? Listen, listen to me, and eat what is good, and your soul will delight in the richest of fare.

The Old Testament prophet is appealing to those who are thirsty and have no money, to those who are hungry and work hard for stuff that doesn’t satisfy them. Jesus said, “Blessed are the poor,” (Luke 6:20) and we think He was being nice to the people of the world who don’t have much materially. He was doing much more than being nice. He was stating the same truth found in Isaiah—part of which is that people who have no money are candidates for spiritual riches. There is a relationship between being poor monetarily and rich spiritually. It can be seen throughout the Scriptures. The opposite is also true—those who have a lot of money are often spiritually bankrupt in the Bible.

So where does that leave most of us?  We, as Americans, are among the richest people in the history of the planet (we have more stuff, better healthcare, more leisure time, and greater conveniences than the kings in the Bible). And yet we still long for more. But here’s the deal: if you are thirsty for the things money can’t buy, then you are poor enough to “cash in” on God’s amazing offer. The seller, God, is giving away that which fills us up the best—that which truly delights, that which satisfies the cravings of our souls (which are immortal) as opposed to our bodies (which are not). Money can’t buy you love; God is love. You do the math.

It’s the start of a new year and a new decade. Let’s resolve to approach Jesus as poor beggars who will never have the means to acquire what we truly long for: LOVE—love of God, love of self, love for others. He’s giving it away for free. “May the Lord direct your hearts into God’s love…” (2 Thessalonians 3:5)

Considering the Problem of Evil In a Few Paragraphs

Tolkien (20th Century Fox)

Mary & I recently went to the movies and saw “Tolkien,” the biopic about the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings Trilogy. We liked it. It’s about J.R.R. Tolkien’s early life—from boyhood to when he began teaching at Oxford University. There’s nothing about him leading C.S. Lewis to faith, or about his association with the Inklings (there’s not a lot about his faith in Christ at all, actually)There’s quite a bit about the events that shaped him and became themes in his novels. If you read Tolkien, you realize that the fight against evil is a dominant motif. The problem of evil is one that we Christians must address at times with those who have a different view of the world. Here’s an attempt to give you some talking points for that discussion.

For the LORD is good and his love endures forever; his faithfulness continues through all generations. (Psalm 100:5) 

As fish are caught in a cruel net, or birds are taken in a snare, so men are trapped by evil times that fall unexpectedly upon them. (Ecclesiastes 9:12) 

The Biblical view of this world is one of spoiled goodness. Evil is the warping of the good. God did not create evil, but He did create both invisible and visible beings with power over a physical world who have the ability to choose His good or to reject it. Thus, good is primary and evil requires good to exist. We know God does not override the will of angels nor humans in their choices (to do so would take away their free will) but the Bible states that God can make good come from evil choices— for He is both merciful and full of grace. “And we know that in all things God works for the good of those who love him, who have been called according to his purpose.” (Romans 8:28)  

A truly good God would only create the best of all possible worlds. The problem is that this world is obviously not the best possible world—but it is on the way to the best possible world. God will create a new heaven and a new earth where there will be no more pain or death; but in the meantime, He is about making goodness appear in the bleakest of situations. Consider heroism, which is the kind of good that can only grow in the face of evil. Consider patience, compassion, mercy, forgiveness, sacrifice—all of which require an evil against which to react.  The Book of James acknowledges this when James writes, “Consider it pure joy, my brothers and sisters, whenever you face trials of many kinds, because you know that the testing of your faith develops perseverance. Perseverance must finish its work so that you may be mature and complete, not lacking anything.” (James 1:1-4) 

The Bible reveals that God only permits as much evil as is necessary (in a universe with beings who have free will) to provide for the potential of their increased goodness. As evil as these times are, God recognizes our ability to choose but allows only what He must to accomplish His ends. It was even so with Jesus—as the writer of Hebrews says, “Although he was a son, he learned obedience from what he suffered.” (Hebrews 5:8)